Estudio aleatorizado abierto de niños con exacerbación aguda del asma tratados con esteroides inhalados

Elias Ibrahim Kassisse, Linair Prada, Ixora Salazar, Hecmary García, Jorge Kassisse

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Resumen

Introducción: la terapia primaria en la crisis de asma aguda, incluye administración de oxígeno, uso de β2-agonistas por vía inhalada y la administración de esteroides sistémicos. Las ventajas que se citan sobre el uso de los esteroides inhalados serían, su rápido inicio de acción y su buen perfil de seguridad, en contraposición a los esteroides sistémicos.
Objetivo:
evaluar la utilidad de los corticoides inhalados en el tratamiento de la crisis de asma aguda en niños mayores de 2 años.
Métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo, transversal, experimental, aleatorizado, de eficacia clínica; la selección se realizó por medio de una tabla de números aleatorios, y se incluyeron tres grupos: el I recibió terapia estándar, el II la sustitución del esteroide sistémico por el inhalado y el III combinó a la terapia estándar el esteroide inhalado. El análisis estadístico se realizó por medio de ANOVA y chi cuadrado con una p< 0,05 como significativa.
Resultados: se estudiaron 165 pacientes, los tres grupos de tratamiento mejoraron la escala de severidad inicial. Los pacientes que recibieron esteroides inhalados adicionados a la terapia estándar, tuvieron 73 % de posibilidades de no ser hospitalizados, 27 % de posibilidades de reducir el riesgo de hospitalizaciones y de cada 100 pacientes tratados con la combinación, se pudieran prevenir 8 hospitalizaciones.
Conclusiones: los esteroides inhalados muestran equivalencia terapéutica a los esteroides sistémicos.

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