El síndrome de intestino irritable como causa de dolor abdominal crónico

Trini Fragoso Arbelo, Rebeca Milán Pavón

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Introducción: los trastornos funcionales gastrointestinales son motivo de consulta frecuente en Gastroenterología, y presentan un serio problema social y en la dinámica familiar. El síndrome de intestino irritable en la población pediátrica es poco diagnosticado, y el dolor abdominal crónico es motivo de consulta frecuente en la infancia y adolescencia.
Objetivo: analizar los aspectos más actuales en su diagnóstico y tratamiento, y su relación con el dolor abdominal crónico.
Métodos: se revisaron las bases documentales de PubMed, Scielo y Latindex y el Registro Especializado del Grupo Cochrane de datos relacionados con el síndrome de intestino irritable hasta diciembre de 2017, así como las guías de tratamiento postuladas por distintas organizaciones médicas, basadas en los criterios de Roma y de la Medicina Basada en la Evidencia.
Desarrollo: se realizó una revisión del tema referido a la infancia, y se incluyeron concepto y patogénesis más aceptadas, así como los criterios de Roma establecidos para el diagnóstico. Se hizo énfasis en la etiología, diagnóstico clínico y pruebas diagnósticas. Se analizaron algunos aspectos del tratamiento.
Conclusiones: el síndrome de intestino irritable es relativamente frecuente como causa de dolor abdominal crónico funcional, y el interrogatorio dirigido según los criterios de Roma es útil para su diagnóstico. La mayoría de los pacientes con síndrome de intestino irritable en la infancia deben ser atendidos en la atención primaria.

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